Use of battery storage
Since it is not practical to supply electricity while riding, LEVs rely on carrying stored electrical energy in batteries. Typical capacities of battery storage used are 200 Wh (pedal scooters), 500-750 Wh (bicycles) or 1.5-3 kWh (scooters and cargo bikes ).
Battery storage systems are often designed as interchangeable systems: After use, a battery can be exchanged for a fully charged one and then recharged while the vehicle remains in operation. In addition, interchangeable systems can act as an anti-theft device: In this case, the LEV is only ready to drive with a personalised battery storage unit.
Nevertheless, permanently installed battery storage units are also available, especially for electric racing bikes and electric scooters, but sometimes also for other types of LEVs. However, they have the disadvantage that the entire vehicle has to be disposed of at the end of the battery's life. As this results in large amounts of avoidable electrical waste, fixed batteries have come under increasing criticism.1
LEVs place high demands on the size and weight of the batteries used. Especially in the case of single- and two-wheelers, they must be space-saving and design-friendly and should contribute as little as possible to the weight of the vehicle. In principle, this can be achieved by three battery characteristics: (1) a high energy density, (2) little to no capacity decrease over time, and (3) deep dischargeability. For sharing models of LEVs, the issue of capacity decrease gains additional relevance, as the usage rate of the vehicles is usually significantly increased.
In addition, the safety of the batteries is of crucial importance: users of LEVs must be certain that their vehicle is neither a fire nor an explosion hazard - both on the road and at the parking and charging site at home. Special attention must be paid to the fact that batteries in LEVs are often exposed to strong solar radiation and heat up accordingly, which can significantly reduce their service life.
1 Bundesrat (2019): Entschließung des Bundesrates - "Verbot des Einbaus nicht wechselbarer Batterien bzw. Akkumulatoren in Elektro-Scooter, Elektro-Roller, E-Bikes und Pedelecs".
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