Relevance of this field of application
The National Charging Infrastructure Control Centre has developed scenarios for Germany for the market ramp-up and the demand for charging infrastructure until 2030. The reference scenario assumes a demand for charging stations of 10.4 million units, with an expected stock of 14.8 million battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. The amount of energy charged is estimated at 30,000 GWh per year.1
For grid planning purposes, each charging station represents a new consumer whose supply must be guaranteed by the grid. If the reference scenario is followed, this results in an additional capacity of 162 GW across Germany by 2030. The actual grid expansion requirement results from the balance of the required capacity and the available grid reserve at the respective grid level. For example, a household connection in the standard load profile (SLP) is calculated with 14.5 kW, the low-voltage grid is designed for 30 kW per household - the grid reserve at household level is thus 15.5 kW. On average, there are 100 households per grid section as the smallest grid level. If the connected load reaches the capacity of the affected grid level, the integration of further charging stations requires a grid expansion.1
The distribution of charging points across different types of locations is a key lever here. In the reference scenario, private households bear the main burden in 2030 with 7.1 million charging points and 41 % of the amount of energy charged. Employers represent the second pillar of supply with 2.6 million charging points and 27 % of the charging volume. The third pillar is the public space, which, with 711,000 charging points, however, covers the considerable amount of 32 % of the electricity supply. In the public space, there is a further subdivision into inner-city charging hubs, charging hubs on axes, customer car parks and the street space. While a connected load of 11 kW is assumed for private households, the load for employers, customer car parks and the street space is 22 kW. Charging hubs are calculated with a connected load of 150 kW in urban areas and even 350 kW at axles. A lower availability of private charging stations would have to be compensated above all in the public space: first and foremost in customer car parks (+25%) and inner-city charging hubs (+22%) as well as charging points in the road space (+16%).1
1 Nationale Leitstelle Ladeinfrastruktur (2020): Ladeinfrastruktur nach 2025/2030: Szenarien für den Markthochlauf. Studie im Auftrag des BMVI.
Link ↗ (accessed 28.01.2021).